Kumal is one of the fifty-nine Adibasi Janajati, The word ‘kumal‘ is derived from ‘Sanskrit’ language. In Sanskrit, the people who make the earthen pot are called ‘kumbhakar‘. ‘Kumbha‘ means pot of clay and ‘kar‘ means the builder. In the beginning, the caste discrimination was based on occupation to which people chose that work. The kumal people chose that kind of occupation and called them ‘kumbhakar‘ and then ‘kumal’. So the ethnic group ‘kumal. is related with their occupation.
Now a day, the pot of metals and plastic occupy the market of earthen pot. The demand of earthen pot is decreased. So their occupation is diverted towards agriculture. Besides agriculture, near the riverside Kumals are involved in fishing too. Now the main occupation of this group is agriculture. However, they have not sufficient lands for farming. They have to go to the rich people for ploughing fields as a ‘Nimek‘. Most of the children of Kumal go to the rich people as a cattle grazer for solving hand to mouth problem.
Kumal people drink alcoholic substance as Magars, Gurungs, and Tharus. So they are also called ‘Matuwali‘. Especially in the different festivals and local customs of them, they invite their relatives and serves alcohol with meat to their relatives. Kumals have many festivals and ‘Devi Devata‘.
Kumals live in most of the part of the country mainly Morang, Jhapa, Biratnagar, Dhading, Gorkha, Lamjung, Chitwan, Nawalparasi, Rupandehi, Kapilvastu, Dang, Tanahun, Parbat, Syanja, Gulmi, Arghakhanchi, Puthan, Nuwakot, Sankhuwasawa, Kaski and Palpa district.
In the comparision of national literacy rate, Kumal’s literacy rate and the participation in higher education is very low. Some scholors have expressed their concern over Kumal’s economic, educational and social status. According to them, in overall aspects they are disadvantaged, backwards and unprivilaged.